“Śrī-Śrī Viśākhānandada Stotram – “Praises that delight Viśākhā”{verse 37}



When She sees Mādhava placing His arm on Subala’s shoulder,
She smiles and strikes a Tamāla-tree with a blooming lotus flower.

Stavāmṛta Kaṇā Vyākhyā:

When Śrīmatī sees Mādhava placing His arm on Subala’s shoulder She thinks it is a sign from Him that He actually wants to place His arm on Her shoulder. That’s why She strikes a Tamāla-tree, taking it to be Kṛṣṇa’s representative because it has the same colour and attractiveness as Him, with a blooming lotus flower, in a mood of opposition (vāma svabhāva). Her slight smile indicates Her desire for Mādhava’s embrace.

Sriman Mahaprabhu´s unique gift

In today’s world, many Gaudiya Vaisnavas say, “We are practicing Krishna consciousness.”
But what exactly is Krishna consciousness? According to the direct personal teachings of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, “Krishna consciousness” describes a devotee who is both day and night physically and mentally absorbed in serving Radha-Krishna in Vrndavana like the Vraja-gopis.

The following verse of Srinatha Chakravarti, a disciple of Sri Advaita Prabhu, describes the four pillars of Gaudiya Vaisnava dharma i.e., “Krishna consciousness”:

ārādhyo bhagavān vrajeśa-tanayas, tad-tad-dhāma vṛndāvanaṁ
ramyā kācid upāsanā vraja-vadhu,-vargeṇa vā kalpitā
śrīmad-bhāgavataṁ pramāṇam amalaṁ, premā pumartho mahān
śrī-caitanya-mahāprabhor matam idaṁ, tatrādaro naḥ paraḥ

The founder of Gaudiya Vaisnavism, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught raganuga-bhakti as the best means to attain pure love for Radha and Krishna in the spiritual realm of Vrndavana.

So in order to clarify Mahaprabhu’s definition of raganuga-bhakti i.e., “Krishna consciousness”, the translation of this verse is presented in a question answer format.

“1. What form of Bhagavan should we worship?
We should worship Nandanandana Sri Krishna in His sweet abode of Vrndavana.

2. By what sadhana can one attain Sri-Krishna in Vrndavana?
One must worship Sri Krishna like the Vraja-gopis by practicing raganuga sadhana.

3. What shastra proves this?
The pure Purana, Srimad Bhagavatam establishes these divine truths.

4. What is the goal of human life?
The topmost attainment is Sri Krishna prema.

This siddhanta, and no other, is honored by all Gaudiya Vaisnavas.”

There are two parallel paths of bhakti sadhana leading to spiritual perfection:

(1) Vaidhi (based on fear, reward, personal desires, benefits and sastric edicts);

2) Raganuga (based on taste, attraction and fervent desire to serve, see and love Radha-Krishna in Vrndavana). Continue reading

“Śrī-Śrī Viśākhānandada Stotram – “Praises that delight Viśākhā”{verse 36}



She is a proud girl who playfully ignores the beggar Kṛṣṇa,
but who also gives a hint with a look from Her wide-open eyes to a cave of Govardhana Hill.

Stavāmṛta Kaṇā Vyākhyā:

This is an instance of vivvoka caused by pique. The word bhāminī indicates anger, anger caused by pique. Kṛṣṇa is begging Rādhikā for love, but She is too proud to grant it.
Rather, She makes a gesture with Her wide eyes towards a cave of Govardhana Hill.
This is not ordinary pride, it is a extraordinary mood that is meant to attract Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
That’s why She stares with blooming eyes at the cave of Govardhana Hill, where She will make Him relish the nectar of intimate pastimes with Her.

“Śrī-Śrī Viśākhānandada Stotram – “Praises that delight Viśākhā”{verse 34}


vilokayatī govinde smitvā cāru mukhāmbujam
puṣpākṛṣṭī miṣād ūrdhve dhṛta dormūla cālanā

When slightly smiling Govinda sees Her beautiful lotus-face,
She lifts Her armpits on the pretext of picking flowers.

Stavāmṛta Kaṇā Vyākhyā:

In Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi these movements are named svayaṁ dautyā, being one’s own messenger by using physical expressions:

aṅgulī sphoṭanaṁ vyja sambhramādy aṅga saṁvṛtiḥ
padā bhūlekhanaṁ karṇa kaṇḍūtis tilaka kriyā
veśa kriyā bhruvor dhṛtih sakhyām āśleṣa tāḍane;
daṁśo’dharasya hārādi gumpho maṇḍana siñjitam
dormūlādi prakaṭanaṁ Kṛṣṇa nāmābhilekhanam;
tarau latāyā yogādyāh Kṛṣṇasyāgre syur āṅgikāḥ

“Stretching out the fingers, feigned respect, covering the body, writing on the ground with the toes, scratching the ears, putting on tilaka, dressing oneself, moving the eyebrows, embracing the girlfriend, chastising the girlfriend, biting one’s lips, stringing necklaces, making the ornaments jingle, revealing the armpits, writing Kṛṣṇa’s names and making the vines embrace the trees. These are physical expression with which a girl shows Kṛṣṇa Her desires.”

All examples are found in Śrī Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi.

“Śrī-Śrī Viśākhānandada Stotram – “Praises that delight Viśākhā”{verse 33}


madanonmādi govindam akasmāt prekṣya hāsinī
lapantī rudatī kamprā ruṣṭā daṣṭādharāturā

When She suddenly sees Govinda intoxicated by lusty desires She smiles,
speaks, cries, shivers and angrily bites Her lips.

Stavāmṛta Kaṇā Vyākhyā:

In the following verses Śrī Raghunātha draws a sweet picture of all the different emotions the embodiment of mahā bhāva, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, shows.

He has personally experienced all this in his kiṅkarī rūpa (spiritual form of a maidservant). It is easily understood that such descriptions cannot be possibly made without having seen it directly.

Śrī Raghunātha says that when Śrīmatī sees Govinda being intoxicated with lusty desires, She simultaneously shows seven different emotions: smiling, speaking, crying, shivering, becoming angry, biting the lips and agitation.

This combination of emotions is defined as kila kiñcita in Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi:

garvābhilāṣa rudita smitāsūyā bhaya krudhām; saṅkarī-karaṇaṁ harṣād ucyate kila kiñcitam – “When pride, desire, crying, smiling, envy, fear and angry all emanate from joy in a combined way it is called kila kiñcita.”

Śrī Rādhikā is happy because She sees Kṛṣṇa mad with erotic intoxication, and thus She smiles, prattles and shows Her desires. She shivers out of fear, bites Her lips out of pride and is agitated out of envy.

In Caitanya Caritāmṛta it is described:

garva abhilāṣa bhaya śuṣka rudita; krodha asūyā saha āra manda smita
nānā svādu asta bhāve ekatra milana; yāhāra āsvāde tṛpta hoy Kṛṣṇa mana
dadhi khaṇḍa ghṛta madhu marica karpūra; elāci milane yaiche rasālā madhura
ei bhāva yukta dekhi rādhāsya nayana; saṅgama hoite sukha pāya koṭi guṇa

“The combination of the eight moods pride, desire, fear, dry crying, anger, envy and slight smiling is very tasty, and their relish satisfies Kṛṣṇa’s mind. When yoghurt, rock-candy, ghī, honey, black pepper, camphor and cardamom are mixed you get a sweet preparation named Rasāla. When Kṛṣṇa sees Rādhā’s eyes and face showing a meddle of emotions comparable to the above-mentioned delicacy, He gets more pleasure than when He would directly unite with Her.”


Practice of devotional service in ‘MAÑJARĪ BHĀVA’, that is, in the mode of single – minded servitude to Śrī Rādhā, the chief consort of Kṛṣṇa, is the special hitherto unoffered, generous contribution of Śrī Mahāprabhu in this dark age of Kali.

We have said that in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam there is large description of the moods of the beloved. This does not mean that there is no description of the love of a female friend (sakhi – Prem) at all.
In the purport to verses such as “apyeṇa patnyupagataḥ” (Bhāg. 10.30.11), Jīva Gosvāmī has written –

“atrākhaṇḍasya vākyasya nikhila padānām apyanumodana vyañjaka evārtha pratipadyate.
Tataḥ sakhyam evāsāṁ tan mithunam anulakṣyate tad-darśanotkaṇṭha ca tatra vākyārthaḥ”

Meaning – “All the words of this verse are suggestive of approval. We should understand that Śrī Rādhā’s friends are anxious to see both Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Hence they are inquiring about them from the does”.

Kāma-rūpā Bhakti is of two types –

(1) sambhogecchāmayī

(2) tad-bhāvecchātmikā

“Keli-tātparyavatyeva sambhogecchāmayī bhavet,
tad-bhāvecchātmikā tāsāṁ bhava-mādhurya kāmitā”.
– [B.R.S. 1.2.299]

Meaning – “Sambhogecchāmayī is the mood of a beloved while tadbhāvecchātmikā is the mood of a sakhi.”

Sakhi is of five types, mañjarī being one of them. They are always ready to serve. Service is their soul. Continue reading